F R E E E S P E R A N T O C O U R S E
Regular word building: Applicable to all animal families:
ox cow calf herd bovo bovino bovido bovaro
sheep ewe lamb flock sxafo sxafino sxafido sxafaro
dog bitch puppy pack hundo hundino hundido hundaro
horse mare foal herd cxevalo ... ... ...
rabbit rabbit -- -- kuniklo ... ... ...
Got the idea? In Esperanto it's easy, but in English it's hard!
A few more word building suffixes and prefixes:
ge- gepatroj gesinjoroj geknaboj
of both parents ladies and boys and girls
-an klubano vilagxano nov-jorkano
member of club member villager New Yorker
-eg pluvego ridego bonega
enormous downpour hearty laugh excellent
-ej klubejo trinkejo necesejo
place for clubhouse pub restroom (WC)
-et libreto mangxeto monteto
tiny booklet snack hill
-ul junulo blindulo belulino
person youth blind person a beauty
bo- bofrato bopatrino
in-law brother-in-law mother-in-law
Logic dictates when to use prefixes and suffixes, but there are no precise
rules. So use them when they make sense. Can anything be easier?
Kio estas la puno por bigamio? Du bopatrinoj!
Summary of verb forms: (What makes the following so great is that it can
be used with all verbs; no exceptions!)
Simple verb forms (use with any noun or pronoun subject).
dormi [infinitive] to sleep
dormis [past time] (yesterday)
dormas [present time] (now)
dormos [future time] (tomorrow)
Se mi estus ricxa, mi estus kontenta. If I were rich, I
would be content. (describes situation that aren't true.)
dormu! [imperative] A command!
Aux silentu, aux foriru. Either be quiet or go away.
Common verb affixes:
re: repeat of action; again
re- -igx- ek: sudden start or short duration
[verb root] -ad- ad: continual action
ek- -ig- igx: to become
ig: to make (something happen)
Compound verbs - active (Action by the subject of sentence)
Sxi estis mangxinta sian matenmangxon.
Sxi estas leganta sian jxurnalon.
Sxi estos skribonta leteron.
Note: participles can have a plural form:
Mi estas mangxinta. Ni estas mangxintaj.
And participles can be used as adjectives:
La dormanta knabo: The sleeping boy.
Compound verbs - passive (Action on the subject of sentence)
active: Li estas leganta la jxurnalon.
He is reading the newspaper.
passive: La jxurnalo estas legata de li.
The paper is being-read by him.
Compare with lesson 8:
La matenmangxo estis \/ mangxita de sxi.
La jxurnalo estas -- legata de sxi.
La letero estos /\ skribota de sxi.
ita, been -ed; ata, being -ed; ota, about to be -ed.
Our apologies for packing all that stuff in such a small mail - but
just try to cover the same information about any other language in
anything smaller than a textbook.
The compound verbs are used a lot less in Esperanto than in English.
Use of the simple form is usually good enough. Instead of "Li estis
mangxinta", we say "Li mangxis."
Participles can be used as nouns.
aminto someone who was loving
active: amanto someone who is loving
amonto someone who will-be loving
amito someone who was loved
passive: amato someone who is loved
amoto someone who will-be loved
Noun participles can have feminine [amantino] and plural [amatoj] forms.
They can be formed from any verb [parolanto, dormintoj, falontino (the girl
who is about to fall)].
Note the difference between -anto and -isto:
instruanto: one who teaches (not professionally)
instruisto: a teacher (professional)
A little more about the correlatives in lesson 5:
tio = that thing cxi tio = this thing
tiu = that (one, person) cxi tiu = this one, person
tie = there, that place cxi tie = this place, here
kiom = how much, how many; kiom da = how many (of) something
Kiom da amikoj vi havas? How many friends do you have? Kiom gxi
kostas? How much does it cost?
kies = whose Kies plumo gxi estas?
Whose pen is it?
answer: Gxi estas la plumo de Johano.
(No shorter way of saying "John's pen")
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
dimancxo lundo mardo merkredo jxauxdo vendredo sabato
January February March April May June July
januaro februaro marto aprilo majo junio julio
August September October November December
auxgusto septembro oktobro novembro decembro
La Lingvo Por Ni
(Tune: My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean)
Sur montoj kaj step' indianoj,
Cxasadas kun rugx-famili',
Kaj se vi postulas parolon,
el kanjon' eliras la kri':
# ES-PER-AN-TO estas la lingvo por ni, por ni!
ES PER AN TO estas la lingvo por ni!
En densa afrika gxangalo, la bonaj amikoj de ni
Jam solvis la lingvan problemon, Per tamtam' eliras la kri':
Cxe norda poluso eskimoj, logxadas en negxo, glaci';
Se ili bezonas parolon, auxdigxas la tutsama kri';
Sur tuta la vasta terglobo, en urboj el cxiu naci'
Trovigxas sam-ide-an-aro, de buboj elsonas la kri':
Indianoj, nigruloj, eskimoj; urbanoj kaj buboj kaj mi
Jam uzas la Zamenhof-lingvon, Do, vivu, prosperu la kri':
(Note: An apostrophe denotes an "o" which as been left out for poetic or
musical reasons, do not do this in prose.)
HEY, IT'S ME, NOAM, YOUR KOREKTANTO! I want to add something here. The
replacement of the final "o" in a noun without the -j or -n endings by
an apostrophe, or of the "a" in "la" by an apostrophe when there's a
vowel either to before or after the "la" (lest it be unpronouncable) is
allowed, though used almost exclusively in poetry. This is called
elision (elizio). Look at Twinkle Twinkle Little Star in Esperanto:
Brilu, brilu eta stel',
Diamanto de l' ^ciel'.
Tiel alta super Ter',
Kio estas vi, en ver'?
Brilu, brilu eta stel',
Diamanto de l' ^ciel'.
Stelo = star, diamanto = diamond, ^cielo = sky, tero = earth/land/ground.
Sorry to take your time. Back to the lesson...
With this lesson you will find the final set of exercises. Complete the
50 sentences and send them back to your tutor. After correction, he will
send them back to you, and by separate mail you will receive an atestilo
(Certificate of Completion).
We would be very happy to receive from you any comments you may have about
the course and a note about your plans for Esperanto - traveling, reading,
corresponding, etc. Send them to the central address (the one in the
There are many good books for beginning reading. Write to the book service
of your national Esperanto association. They will be glad to send you a
book list and suggest suitable reading material. You can also try the book
service of the Universala Esperanto-Asocio, which claims to have the biggest
Esperanto-bookstore. For addresses, see lesson 1. Note that in Canada, the
address is: Esperanto-Libroservo, 6358-A, rue de Bordeaux, Montreal,
Quebec, H2G 2R8, +1 514 272 0151.
We strongly recommend that you join your local Esperanto club or society
and participate in the activities. Or if there isn't a club in your
region, start one up! For those who live in the USA: ELNA provides a list
of local groups, if you send them a self-addressed stamped envelope.
Vi jam finis vian unuan kurson de Esperanto.
Ni deziras por vi plej bonan sukceson!
Gxis la revido!
__________________________ extract from here ____________________________
Ekzercoj, Leciono Dek
Translate into Esperanto. [Close as possible with comments in bracket to
clarify the English. Multiple translations are possible. Think in
Esperanto; trying to translate word-for-word may not help!]
1. The boy.
2. A good boy.
3. And a girl.
4. The girl is bad.
5. She has a beer.
6. Real men drink beer. [real = vera]
7. Good girls don't smoke.
8. But they quickly learn.
9. The pupils are young. [pupil = "one who is learning"]
10. They have a new school.
11. The teacher is old.
12. What's that?
13. Why do you keep on talking?
14. Start working quietly.
15. Whose book is that?
16. How did you do so much?
17. Do everything again.
18. We went to the club at Houston.
19. We will go in the minibus from Calgary.
20. With beer under the seats.
21. For drinking while we travel. [make "drinking" an extended activity]
22. On the freeway as far as the sea.
23. We all run onto the beach.
24. And someone swims in the sea.
25. Would you like to go?
26. He caught the ball.
27. Shoot! You'll score something.
28. He has caught the ball.
29. He is shooting.
30. He is going to score.
31. He had gone.
32. The goal has been scored.
33. The game was going to be won.
34. Do you know a blonde? [a female blonde]
35. Who knows how to cook?
36. I must meet her.
37. I'd love such a wife.
38. Sharpen my knife.
39. I like my food.
40. My parents are shopping.
41. I want a tiny dog. ["tiny dog" is one word]
42. If I had a puppy...
43. It would become bigger.
44. I can imagine it there.
45. There it is, with a huge bone.
46. Why not go to Paris?
47. Our club members went there.
48. Drink some of their wine.
49. We have sweet wines here.
50. What time is it?
gain (win) gajno
to imagine imagi
to eat mangxi
to cut trancxi
to score trafi
to swim nagxi
to shoot pafi
Don't forget to add your name and e-mail address, and mail these
exercises to the address for your tutor in the Welcome Letter,
with subject: 'FEC ekz 10'.
Go back to the
for other lessons.