2 .   E S P E R A N T O      A F F I X E S


affix   meaning                       examples of use


I a.  Official Prefixes:

bo-    relationship by marriage,      bopatrino = mother-in-law,

       -in-law                        bofrato = brother-in-law

dis-   dis-, dispersal, separation,   disjxeti = to scatter about, 

       scattering, dismemberment      disdoni = to distribute,

                                      disauxdigi = to broadcast,

                                      disigi = to separate, to take apart,

                                      disigxi = to disintegrate, to fall apart

ek-    momentary, sudden,             ekiri = to start, 

       commencement,                  ekbrili = to flash, 

       beginning of action            ekvidi = to notice,

       or brief lasting action        ekkrii = to shout out,

                                      eki = to begin, to start,

                                      ni eku! = let's get started

eks-   ex-, former                    eksregxo = ex-king,

                                      eksedzino = ex-wife,

                                      eksigi = to discharge (from office),

                                               to impeach,

                                      eksigxi = to resign

fi-    shameful, nasty,               fiago = shameful act, 

       morally bad,                   figazeto = "smutty" magazine,

       moral degradation,             fialudi = innuendo, evil insinuation,

       contempt                       fikomercisto = swindler,

                                      fia = nasty, horrid,

                                      fiacxa = repulsing in any regard 

ge-    of both sexes together         gepatroj = parents,

                                      gejunuloj = youth, young people,

                                      gesinjoroj = ladies and gentleman,

                                      gea = of both sexes, unisex

mal-   opposite                       malgranda = small, 

                                      malami = to hate,

                                      malaperi = to vanish, to disappear, 

                                      malricxa = poor, 

                                      malbona = bad,

                                      malbela = ugly, 

                                      malforta = weak,

                                      malfacila = difficult,

                                      maldekstra = left,

                                      malfermi = to open,

                                      malkonsenti = to disagree,

                                      mala = opposite,

                                      male = on the contrary, contrary to

mis-   mis-, amiss, wrongly           miskompreni = to misunderstand,

                                      miskompreno = misunderstanding,

                                      misuzi = to misuze,

                                      misuzo = abuse


pra-   remote (time), primordiality,  prapatroj = ancestors,

       remoteness of relationship,    praavo = great-grandfather,

       of great antiquity, primeval,  pranepo = great-grandson,

       great (in family relationship),prahistorio = prehistory, 

       ancient, fore-                 pratempo = the ancient past,

                                      pratempa, praa = ancient

re-    re-, return, repetition,       resendi = to send back, 

       back, over again               reveni = to come back, to return (intr),

                                      redoni = to give back, to return (tr),

                                      rebrili = to reflect, 

                                      reverki = to re-write (a book, etc.)


I b.  Unofficial Prefixes:

pseuxdo-   pseudo-                    pseuxdoscienco = pseudoscience,

                                      pseuxdonomo = pseudonym

retro- backward                       retroiri = to retire, withdraw, retreat,

                                      retrorigardi = to look back

II a. Official Suffixes:

-acx-  scorn, disparagement,          domacxo = hovel, shack, shanty,

       contemptible, disgusting,      skribacxi = to scrawl,

       bad kind                       infanacxo = brat,

                                      virinacxo = hag, 

                                      cxevalacxo = sorry nag, 

                                      veteracxo = filthy weather,

                                      acxulo = creep, thug,

                                      acxajxo = abomination

-ad-   frequent, repetitive           nagxado = swimming, 

       or habitual action,            pafado = shooting,

       prolonged action,              kuirado = cooking,

       continuation of action         agadi = to act,

                                      agado = action, activity,

                                      movado = movement, 

                                      parolado = a speach,

                                      kuradi = to keep on running

-ajx-  thing (concrete idea),         segajxo = sawdust, 

       a concrete manifestation       bovajxo = beef,

       of an abstraction,             sxafajxo = mutton,

       the external manifestation     kokinajxo, kokidajxo = chicken,

       of an activity,                fluajxo = liquid,

       a characteristic piece of      pakajxo = package, thing packed,

       behaviour,                     sendajxo = shipment, thing sent,

       the flesh of an animal,        infanajxo = a childish act,

       product, dish                  ovajxo = scrambled eggs,

                                      gxentilajxo = polite, courteous act,

                                      verdajxo = greenery, something green,

                                      mangxajxo = food,

                                      fragajxo = strawberry jam,  

                                      sekajxoj = dry goods,

                                      dolcxajxoj = sweets, candies,

                                      ajxo = a thing, object,

                                      Esperantajxoj = publications or other

                                      collectibles related to Esperanto

-an-   member (of a group),           ano = member,

       inhabitant (of a place         klubano = club member,

       or country), partisan,         kursano = a course participant,

       participant, adherent          kongresano = congressman, delegate,

                                      vilagxano = villager,

                                      urbanoj = townspeople,

                                      nederlandano = dutchman,

                                      londonano = londoner,

                                      amerikanoj = americans,

                                      kristano = christian

-ar-   collective, group, set,        arbaro = forest, woods,

       a collection of like things    anaro = members' body, 

                                      vortaro = dictionary,

                                      libraro = library,

                                      auxdantaro = audience, 

                                      homaro = mankind,

                                      aro = collection, set

-cxj-  pet-name (masculine)           pacxjo = daddy, 

       [truncation of root optional]  Jocxjo = Johnny, Joe,

                                      Tomcxjo = Tom, Tommy

-ebl-  -able, -ible, possibility      legebla = legible, 

                                      portebla = portable,

                                      videbla = visible, 

                                      mangxebla = edible,

                                      kredebla = credible, believable,

                                      kredeble = possibly, probably,

                                      eble = perhaps,

                                      ebla = possible,

                                      ebleco = possibility

-ec-   quality, abstract idea,        blankeco = whiteness,

       -ness, -ship                   rapideco = speed,

                                      silkeca = silky,

                                      amikeco = friendship,      

                                      klareco = clearness, 

                                      profesoreco = professorship,

                                      moleco = softness,

                                      malmoleco = hardness,

                                      eco = quality

-eg-   augmentative, great size,      bonega = excellent, 

       intense degree                 petegi = to beseech, to implore,

                                      domego = mansion, 

                                      ridegi = to guffaw,

                                      varmega = hot, 

                                      ega = great,

                                      ege = very

-ej-   place alloted to               lernejo = school, 

       or characterized by, space     kuirejo = kitchen,

                                      logxejo = apartment,

                                      vendejo = store,

                                      herbejo = meadow,

                                      hundejo = dog kennel,

                                      pregxejo = temple, church,

                                      ejo = place

-em-   propensity, disposition,       babilema = loquacious,

       tendency                       parolema = talkative,

                                      komprenema = understanding, 

                                      laborema = hard working, industrious,

                                      sxparema = thrifty,

                                      mortema = mortal,

                                      ludema = playful, 

                                      kredema = credulous,

                                      kolerema = irascible,

                                      suspektema = open to suspicion,

                                      samseksema = homosexual,

                                      malsamseksema = heterosexual,

                                      ambauxseksema = bisexusual,

                                      ema = inclined, disposed, prone, apt,

                                      malema = unwilling, reluctant,

                                      eme = willingly, readily, 

                                      emo = tendency, inclination, disposition

-end-  to be -ed, which-must-be-done, pagenda = payable, to be payed, due,

       necessity of action            detruenda = to be destroyed,

                                      solvenda = must be solved,

                                      farenda = to be done, must be done


-er-   item, unit, fragment,          panero = crumb,

       small particle of a whole,     cxenero = link,

       element                        pluvero = raindrop, 

                                      monero = coin,

                                      pulvero = dust particle, 

                                      fajrero = spark,

                                      sablero = grain of sand,

                                      diserigi = to split up, grind down,

                                      ero = element, particle, part

-estr- leader, ruler, head, chief     estro = chief, 

                                      estri = to govern, direct, lead,

                                      sxtatestro = head of state,

                                      guberniestro = state governor, 

                                      staciestro = station master,

                                      urbestro = mayor, 

                                      regnestro = ruler,

                                      lernejestro = head-master, principal,

                                                    school director,

                                      sxipestro = capitain, ship's master 

-et-   diminutive                     dormeti = to doze, to slumber,

                                      libreto = booklet,

                                      lageto = pond, 

                                      dometo = cottage,

                                      varmeta = luke-warm,

                                      rideti = to smile,

                                      eta = small, minimal


-id-   offspring, the descendant of,  ido = child, infant, descendant, scion,

       the young of an animal         idoj = progeny,

                                      izraelido = israelite, 

                                      regxido = prince, 

                                      hundido = puppy,

                                      katido = kitten, 

                                      cxevalido = colt,

                                      bovido = calf,

                                      kokido = chick

-ig-   to make, to render,            purigi = to clean, to purify,

       to cause, to bring about       ebligi = to make possible,

                                      mortigi = to kill, 

                                      plenigi = to fill,

                                      blankigi = to whiten, 

                                      ruinigi = to ruin,

                                      bruligi = to burn something (tr),

                                      timigi = to frighten, 

                                      plibonigi = to improve something (tr),

                                      lumigi = to put on the light, 

                                      bindigi = to have bound,

                                      starigi = to stand (tr),      

                                      sciigi = to let know, to inform,

                                      igi = to make someone or to cause

                                           something to be


-igx-  causative, to become, get,     edzigxi = to get married 

       action of becoming                         (to become a husband),

                                      edzinigxi = to get married 

                                                  (to become a wife),

                                      naskigxi = to be born,

                                      rugxigxi = to blush, 

                                      blankigxi = to grow white, whiten,

                                      plibonigxi = to improve (intr),

                                      sidigxi = to sit down, to become seated,

                                      movigxi = to move of itself,

                                      enlitigxi = to get into bed,

                                      ruligxi = to roll (intr),

                                      sciigxi = to get to know, become aware,

                                      igxi = to become by self

-il-   instrument, means,             ilo = tool,

       tool, implement                hakilo = axe,

                                      sxlosilo = key,

                                      kudrilo = needle, 

                                      trancxilo = knife,

                                      razilo = razor, 

                                      flugilo = wing,

                                      montrilo = pointer, arrow 

-in-   female, feminine               virino = woman,

                                      patrino = mother, 

                                      regxino = queen,

                                      fratino = sister, 

                                      onklino = aunt,

                                      cxevalino = mare,

                                      kokino = hen,

                                      ino = female

-ind-  worthiness,                    lauxdinda = praiseworthy,

       worthy to be -ed,              admirinda = worthy of admiration,


       worth -ing                     aminda = loveable, worthy of love,

                                      memorinda = memorable,

                                      vidinda = worth seeing,

                                      vizitinda = worth a trip,

                                      inda = worthy

-ing-  holder, socket,                glavingo = scabbard, 

       sheath (for one object)        plumingo = penholder,

                                      kandelingo = candlestick

-ist-  person habitually occupied     instruisto = teacher, 

       or concerned with something,   artisto = artist,

       professional or enthusiastic   pentristo = painter,

       amateur, adherent, partisan    policisto = policeman,

                                      masxinisto = machinist, 

                                      biciklisto = cyclist,

                                      maristo = sailor,

                                      sxuisto = shoemaker,

                                      drogisto = druggist, 

                                      marksisto = marxist,

                                      Esperantisto = Esperantist  

-nj-   pet-name (feminine)            panjo = mommy, 

       [truncation of root optional]  Manjo = Mary,

                                      Nenjo = Nellie

-obl-  multiple                       unuobla = single,

                                      duobla = double, twofold, 

                                      trioble = triply, three times,   

                                      kvaroble = fourfold, quadruply,

                                      dekduoble = twelve times,

                                      dudekoble = twenty times,

                                      centoble = a hundredfold,

                                      multobligi, obligi = to multiply

-on-   fraction                       duono = half,

                                      duonigi = to halve, 

                                      sesono = sixth,

                                      centono = a hundredth part

-op-   collective                     unuope = one by one, singly,

                                      duope = two by two, in twos, 

                                      kvaropo = quartet,

                                      kvarope = four abreast, by fours,

                                      centope = by hundreds, a hundred at

                                                                   a time

-uj-   (1) container, receptacle      monujo = purse, 

                                      inkujo = inkstand,

                                      ujo = generic container

       (2) land, country              Anglujo = England, 

                                      Esperantujo = Esperanto-land 

                                      (everywhere where E-o is spoken),

       (3) tree or bush               pomujo = apple tree,

           bearing fruit              pirujo = pear-tree,

                                      plumujo = plum-tree,

                                      vinberujo = vine

[note that (2) and (3) usages of -uj- are becoming archaic/outdated]

-ul-   person (possesing a certain    junulo = youth, young man,

       quality), characterised by     belulino = beauty, 

                                      bravulo = brave man,

                                      blindulo = blind person,

                                      surdulo = deaf person,

                                      mutulo = mute person,

                                      ricxulo = rich man, 

                                      drinkulo = drunkard,

                                      sagxulo = wise man, sage,

                                      samseksemulo = homosexual, gay,

                                      kunulo = companion, 

                                      fremdulo = stranger,

                                      ulo = person, individual


-um-   indefinite relation            malvarmumi = to catch cold,

                                      plenumi = to fulfil,

                                      tendumi = to camp,

                                      literumi = to spell,

                                      okulumi = to ogle, 

                                      foliumi = to browse, to glance 

                                                (through a book),

                                      kolumo = colar,

                                      manumo = wirst band,

                                      plandumo = sole (of shoe),

                                      ventumi = to fan,

                                      ventumilo = a fan, 

                                      aerumi = to ventilate,

                                      komunumo = community, 

                                      krucumi = to crucify,

                                      amikumi = to be friends,

                                      Esperantumi = to use Esperanto 

                                                    (and to enjoy it)

II b. Unofficial Suffixes:

-i-    country                        Francio = France, 

                                      Britio = Great Britain,

                                      Bulgario, Meksikio

-ism-  -ism, theory, system,          platonismo = platonism,

       characteristic behaviour,      protektismo = protectionism,

       pattern                        alkoholismo = alcoholism,

                                      magnetismo = magnetism,

                                      feticxismo = fetishism,

                                      anglismo = anglicism 


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