F R E E   E S P E R A N T O   C O U R S E


                                Lesson Six

A real quick overview of the lessons so far:

  subject thing(s)       action        object thing(s)

   adjective/noun      verb/adverb      adjective/noun


  -a(j) -o(j)             -is  -e        -a(j)n -o(j)n


Bona knabino        lernis rapide       malfacilan lingvon.

Malbonaj knabinoj   lernos malrapide    facilajn lingvojn.

To form questions, place "cxu" in front of the statements:

     La knabo mangxas.        Cxu la knabo mangxas?

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                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Ses (parto unu)

[ki-, ti-, i-, cxi-, neni-] plus [o, a, e, u, om, am , el, al, es] forms 45

correlative (interrelated) words.  Give below the meanings of the roots (5)

and endings (9):

     ki                        o


     ti                        e


      i                       om


    cxi                       el


   neni                       es

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Try without referring back to lesson five. If you find yourself referring

too often, you may want to review the lesson before continuing. The

correlatives are hard to learn out of context, but the combinations will

come naturally after a while.

Difficult sound:  one of the hardest sounds for English speakers to master

is the 'c' or /ts/ sound.  Imagine it as below and it's easier than it


          danco          leciono             biciklo

say:      DANT-so        let-si-ON-o         bit-SI-klo

Vocabulary note:  The English word 'old' may be the opposite of both 'new'

and 'young'.  Therefore there are two translations for 'old' in Esperanto: 

juna (young) - maljuna (old) or nova (new) - malnova (old).  Pay attention!

Prepositions (little words which show the relationship between two other


cup on table; saucer under cup; milk with sugar in coffee

Some prepositions in Esperanto:

al        to                  gxis      until, up to

cxe       near, with          kun       with, together

de        of, from            por       for

dum       while, during       pro       for (because of)

en        in                  sub       under

                              sur       on (position)

Mi estas membro de la Junulara Esperantista Klubo, kaj mi iris al la

Esperanto-Kongreso, kiu okazis en San-Francisko.  Ni vojagxis de Nov-Jorko

dum tri tagoj en nia auxtobuseto, kaj ne haltis gxis ni alvenis al Dalaso,

en Teksaso.  Tie ni vizitis niajn geamikojn kaj mangxis.  Ni portis

sandvicxojn por la tagmangxo, kaj ili estis sub la segxoj sur kiuj ni

sidis. Ni dankis niajn geamikojn pro la bona kongreso.

[Vocabulary:  Junularo:  a group of young people; okazi:  to take place;

auxtobuseto:  minibus; alveni al:  to arrive at; tagmangxo:  lunch;

geamikoj:  friends (male and female); iri:  to go].

Note the use of "pro" after "dankis".  Prepositions can be tricky - there

is no word-for-word correspondence between prepositions in English and

Esperanto.  The "Plena Vortaro" (Esperanto-Esperanto dictionary) is a

good source of examples.

More prepositions in Esperanto:

anstataux    instead of            kontraux     against

antaux       in front of, before   per          with (by means of)

apud         near, next to         post         after (time)

da           of (quantities)       pri          about, concerning

ekster       outside (of)          sen          without

el           out of, from within   super        above

inter        among, between        tra          through

La knabo sen hejmtasko staris antaux la instruisto; anstataux la hejmtasko,

li prenis el koverto leteron pri la afero.  Estis bela tago ekster la

cxambro, kaj la instruisto staris apud la fenestro, tra kiu venis brila

sunlumo, per kiu li legis la leteron.

Inter la vortoj estis tiom da tipaj knabaj eraroj, ke post nelonge, la

knabo klinis super la tablo, kaj pantoflo batis kontraux lia postajxo.

[Vocabulary:  hejmtasko:  homework; stari:  to stand; preni:  to take;

koverto:  envelope; afero:  case; fenestro:  window; veni:  to come;

sunlumo:  sunlight; legi:  to read; vorto:  word; tipa:  typical; klini:

bow, lean over; pantoflo:  slipper; bati:  to hit; postajxo:  behind,


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                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Ses (parto du)

Respondu cxi tiujn demandojn en Esperanto:

(Answer these questions in Esperanto)

1.   Kia klubo gxi estas?

2.   Kion ni portis kun ni?

3.   Kie ili estis?

4.   Kio okazis en San-Francisko?

5.   Dum kiom da tagoj ni vojagxis?

6.   Cxu iu staris antaux la instruisto?

7.   Kio venis tra la fenestro?

8.   Kiom da hejmtaskoj faris la knabo?

9.   Kiel la instruisto batis lin (per kio?)

10.  Kial la instruisto batis lin? (cxar = because)

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More about prepositions:  When an 'object thing' occurs in a sentence, and

when that 'object thing' is a pronoun (I, he, she, etc.) it takes the

object or accusative form (me, him, her, etc).  Thus we say that the

preposition in English 'governs' or requires the accusative form.  The only

place in English where the accusative is different from the nominative

(subject form) is in the pronouns.

     A cake for him.               A letter for her.

In Esperanto, a preposition governs the nominative (subject) form of a

thing, either noun or pronoun.

     Kuko por li.  (not lin!)      Letero por sxi.  (not sxin!)

You will be well understood if you follow this rule.

But don't be surprised if you see a preposition followed by

a "-n" word!  Let's see why:

There is a difference between "I walked in the garden" and "I walked into

the garden".  In the first case, I was already in the garden, walking

around, and in the second case, I was outside the garden and walked to a

position inside the garden.

Instead of          "I walked into the garden"

we can say:         "I walked to in-the-garden",

which translates:   "Mi promenis al en-la-gxardeno."

and we actually say:"Mi promenis en la gxardenon."

Ah ha!  The last "-n" indicates the omitted preposition, usually 'al',

which showed movement toward something.  Therefore we can say, "The

accusative "-n" after a preposition shows motions toward."

     Mi iris en la cxambron.  (into the room)

     Mi promenas ekster la domon.  (to the outside of)

Do not use "-n" after:  al, gxis, de, el.  They already show motion.

Also:  Use "-n" with dates to show an omitted preposition:  Mi estis en

Nov-Jorko pasintan mardon [(on) last Tuesday].

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                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Ses (parto tri)

Translate into Esperanto.

11.  I came on a bicycle.

12.  I cycled into San Francisco.

13.  I cycled in San Francisco.

14.  She runs on the grass (herbo).

15.  He will run onto the grass.

16.  He ran behind the tree (arbo).

17.  He smoked behind the tree.

18.  She traveled with a friend.

19.  He wrote with a pen.

20.  He put (meti) the pen under the paper.

Don't forget to add your name and e-mail address, and mail these

exercises to the address for your tutor in the Welcome Letter,

with subject: 'FEC ekz 6'.


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