F R E E   E S P E R A N T O   C O U R S E


                               Leciono Dek

Regular word building:  Applicable to all animal families:

ox       cow      calf     herd     bovo     bovino   bovido   bovaro

sheep    ewe      lamb     flock    sxafo    sxafino  sxafido  sxafaro

dog      bitch    puppy    pack     hundo    hundino  hundido  hundaro

horse    mare     foal     herd     cxevalo  ...      ...      ...

rabbit   rabbit   --       --       kuniklo  ...      ...      ...

Got the idea?  In Esperanto it's easy, but in English it's hard!

A few more word building suffixes and prefixes:

ge-               gepatroj       gesinjoroj     geknaboj

of both           parents        ladies and     boys and girls

sexes                            gentlemen

-an               klubano        vilagxano      nov-jorkano

member of         club member    villager       New Yorker

-eg               pluvego        ridego         bonega

enormous          downpour       hearty laugh   excellent

-ej               klubejo        trinkejo       necesejo

place for         clubhouse      pub            restroom (WC)

-et               libreto        mangxeto       monteto

tiny              booklet        snack          hill

-ul               junulo         blindulo       belulino

person            youth          blind person   a beauty

bo-               bofrato        bopatrino      

in-law            brother-in-law mother-in-law

Logic dictates when to use prefixes and suffixes, but there are no precise

rules.  So use them when they make sense.  Can anything be easier?

Kio estas la puno por bigamio?  Du bopatrinoj!

Summary of verb forms:  (What makes the following so great is that it can

be used with all verbs; no exceptions!)

Simple verb forms (use with any noun or pronoun subject).

     dormi     [infinitive]             to sleep

     dormis    [past time]              (yesterday)

     dormas    [present time]           (now)

     dormos    [future time]            (tomorrow)

     dormus    [conditional]

               Se mi estus ricxa, mi estus kontenta.  If I were rich, I

               would be content.  (describes situation that aren't true.)

     dormu!    [imperative]             A command!

               Aux silentu, aux foriru.  Either be quiet or go away.

Common verb affixes:

                                   re:  repeat of action; again

re-                 -igx-          ek:  sudden start or short duration

  [verb root] -ad-                 ad:  continual action

ek-                 -ig-           igx: to become            

                                   ig:  to make (something happen)

Compound verbs - active  (Action by the subject of sentence)

     Sxi estis                mangxinta sian matenmangxon.

     Sxi estas                leganta sian jxurnalon.

     Sxi estos                skribonta leteron.

Note:  participles can have a plural form:

     Mi estas mangxinta.      Ni estas mangxintaj.

And participles can be used as adjectives:

     La dormanta knabo:       The sleeping boy.

Compound verbs - passive  (Action on the subject of sentence)


     active:        Li estas leganta la jxurnalon.

                    He is reading the newspaper.

     passive:       La jxurnalo estas legata de li.

                    The paper is being-read by him.

Compare with lesson 8:

     La matenmangxo      estis     \/   mangxita de sxi.

     La jxurnalo         estas     --   legata de sxi.

     La letero           estos     /\   skribota de sxi.

ita, been -ed; ata, being -ed; ota, about to be -ed.

Our apologies for packing all that stuff in such a small mail - but

just try to cover the same information about any other language in

anything smaller than a textbook.

The compound verbs are used a lot less in Esperanto than in English.

Use of the simple form is usually good enough.  Instead of "Li estis

mangxinta", we say "Li mangxis."

Participles can be used as nouns.

                    aminto    someone who   was   loving

     active:        amanto    someone who   is    loving

                    amonto    someone who will-be loving

                    amito     someone who   was   loved

     passive:       amato     someone who   is    loved

                    amoto     someone who will-be loved

Noun participles can have feminine [amantino] and plural [amatoj] forms. 

They can be formed from any verb [parolanto, dormintoj, falontino (the girl

who is about to fall)].

Note the difference between -anto and -isto:

     instruanto:    one who teaches (not professionally)

     instruisto:    a teacher (professional)

A little more about the correlatives in lesson 5:

     tio = that thing              cxi tio   = this thing

     tiu = that (one, person)      cxi tiu   = this one, person

     tie = there, that place       cxi tie   = this place, here

kiom = how much, how many; kiom da = how many (of) something

     Kiom da amikoj vi havas?  How many friends do you have?  Kiom gxi

     kostas?  How much does it cost?

kies = whose             Kies plumo gxi estas?

                         Whose pen is it?

answer:   Gxi estas la plumo de Johano.

          (No shorter way of saying "John's pen")

Sunday    Monday    Tuesday   Wednesday Thursday  Friday    Saturday

dimancxo  lundo     mardo     merkredo  jxauxdo   vendredo  sabato

January   February  March     April     May       June      July

januaro   februaro  marto     aprilo    majo      junio     julio

August    September October   November  December

auxgusto  septembro oktobro   novembro  decembro

                             La Lingvo Por Ni

                  (Tune:  My Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean)

     Sur montoj kaj step' indianoj,

     Cxasadas kun rugx-famili',

     Kaj se vi postulas parolon,

     el kanjon' eliras la kri':

#    ES-PER-AN-TO estas la lingvo por ni, por ni!

     ES PER AN TO estas la lingvo por ni!

     En densa afrika gxangalo, la bonaj amikoj de ni

     Jam solvis la lingvan problemon, Per tamtam' eliras la kri':


     Cxe norda poluso eskimoj, logxadas en negxo, glaci';

     Se ili bezonas parolon, auxdigxas la tutsama kri';


     Sur tuta la vasta terglobo, en urboj el cxiu naci'

     Trovigxas sam-ide-an-aro, de buboj elsonas la kri':


     Indianoj, nigruloj, eskimoj; urbanoj kaj buboj kaj mi

     Jam uzas la Zamenhof-lingvon, Do, vivu, prosperu la kri':


(Note:  An apostrophe denotes an "o" which as been left out for poetic or

musical reasons, do not do this in prose.)

HEY, IT'S ME, NOAM, YOUR KOREKTANTO!  I want to add something here.  The 

replacement of the final "o" in a noun without the -j or -n endings by 

an apostrophe, or of the "a" in "la" by an apostrophe when there's a 

vowel either to before or after the "la" (lest it be unpronouncable) is 

allowed, though used almost exclusively in poetry.  This is called 

elision (elizio).  Look at Twinkle Twinkle Little Star in Esperanto:

	Brilu, brilu eta stel',

	Diamanto de l' ^ciel'.

	Tiel alta super Ter',

	Kio estas vi, en ver'?

	Brilu, brilu eta stel',

	Diamanto de l' ^ciel'.

Stelo = star, diamanto = diamond, ^cielo = sky, tero = earth/land/ground.

Sorry to take your time.  Back to the lesson...

With this lesson you will find the final set of exercises.  Complete the 

50 sentences and send them back to your tutor. After correction, he will

send them back to you, and by separate mail you will receive an atestilo

(Certificate of Completion).

We would be very happy to receive from you any comments you may have about

the course and a note about your plans for Esperanto - traveling, reading,

corresponding, etc. Send them to the central address (the one in the

monthly posting).

There are many good books for beginning reading.  Write to the book service

of your national Esperanto association. They will be glad to send you a

book list and suggest suitable reading material. You can also try the book

service of the Universala Esperanto-Asocio, which claims to have the biggest

Esperanto-bookstore. For addresses, see lesson 1. Note that in Canada, the

address is:  Esperanto-Libroservo, 6358-A, rue de Bordeaux, Montreal,

Quebec, H2G 2R8, +1 514 272 0151. 

We strongly recommend that you join your local Esperanto club or society

and participate in the activities.  Or if there isn't a club in your

region, start one up! For those who live in the USA: ELNA provides a list

of local groups, if you send them a self-addressed stamped envelope.

Vi jam finis vian unuan kurson de Esperanto.

Ni deziras por vi plej bonan sukceson!

Gxis la revido!

__________________________ extract from here ____________________________

                         Ekzercoj, Leciono Dek

Translate into Esperanto.  [Close as possible with comments in bracket to

clarify the English.  Multiple translations are possible.  Think in

Esperanto; trying to translate word-for-word may not help!]

1.   The boy.

2.   A good boy.

3.   And a girl.

4.   The girl is bad.

5.   She has a beer.

6.   Real men drink beer.  [real = vera]

7.   Good girls don't smoke.

8.   But they quickly learn.

9.   The pupils are young.  [pupil = "one who is learning"]

10.  They have a new school.

11.  The teacher is old.

12.  What's that?

13.  Why do you keep on talking?

14.  Start working quietly.

15.  Whose book is that?

16.  How did you do so much?

17.  Do everything again.

18.  We went to the club at Houston.

19.  We will go in the minibus from Calgary.

20.  With beer under the seats.

21.  For drinking while we travel.  [make "drinking" an extended activity]

22.  On the freeway as far as the sea.

23.  We all run onto the beach.

24.  And someone swims in the sea.

25.  Would you like to go?

26.  He caught the ball.

27.  Shoot!  You'll score something.

28.  He has caught the ball.

29.  He is shooting.

30.  He is going to score.

31.  He had gone.

32.  The goal has been scored.

33.  The game was going to be won.

34.  Do you know a blonde?  [a female blonde]

35.  Who knows how to cook?

36.  I must meet her.

37.  I'd love such a wife.

38.  Sharpen my knife.

39.  I like my food.

40.  My parents are shopping.

41.  I want a tiny dog.  ["tiny dog" is one word]

42.  If I had a puppy...

43.  It would become bigger.

44.  I can imagine it there.

45.  There it is, with a huge bone.

46.  Why not go to Paris?

47.  Our club members went there.

48.  Drink some of their wine.

49.  We have sweet wines here.

50.  What time is it?

ball           pilko

beach          plagxo

blonde         blonda

Calgary        Kalgario

freeway        sxoseo

gain (win)     gajno

game           ludo

goal           golo

Paris          Parizo

quiet          silenta

sea            maro

seat           segxo

sweet          dolcxa

to imagine     imagi

to eat         mangxi

to cut         trancxi

to score       trafi

to swim        nagxi

to shoot       pafi

Don't forget to add your name and e-mail address, and mail these

exercises to the address for your tutor in the Welcome Letter,

with subject: 'FEC ekz 10'.


Go back to the index for other lessons.